The new R30 was unveiled by Russian Petrov and team-mate Robert Kubica, who will form the all-new driver line-up of the French squad this year.
Twenty-five year-old Petrov, last year's runner-up in the GP2 series, becomes the first Formula 1 driver in the history of the sport.
Petrov will be partnering Pole Kubica at Renault, who is hoping to turn around its fortunes following a dismal 2009 season in which the team scored just 26 points on its way to eighth place in the championship.
The R30 was presented with Renault's new colours - yellow and black - following the exit of ING as main sponsor in the middle of last season.
It also incorporates a similar shark fin engine cover, as those seen in the new McLaren and Sauber cars.
The new colour scheme resembles that used by Renault when it first entered Formula 1 back in 1978.